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Mary Cumisky

Reproduced, with the Society's permission, from the 1990 Journal of The Creggan Local History Society

"We talk of great physicians and Dr. William's Pills,
And Mother Regal Syrup as a remedy for ills;
But long live Sir Thomas Jackson - great laurels for to win,
He gave speech unto a dummy clock in the town of Crossmaglen". 1

On the 1st September 1989, the bell of the Jackson Clock was restored and put on show in the Greenroom of the Community Centre in Crossmaglen. This event prompted me to tell the story of the Jacksons of Urker Lodge and in particular the story of Sir Thomas Jackson, Creggan's only Knight of the Realm since the middle of the 17th century, when Sir Henry O'Neill ruled the Fews. It was of Jackson that the poet wrote - the man who erected the Clock on the Markethouse in Crossmaglen in 1903.

Restored Jackson Bell

The story of the Clock started in 1865 when landlord Thomas Ball put up a fake clock on the Markethouse which he had built in 1863.2
The fake clock was a source of much derision for almost forty years. A local ballad-writer, generally believed to be either Michael Watters or Denis Nugent, sang the praises of the "Dummy Clock" in the following ballad:

"High up above our market hall, and looking o'er the Square,
A strange and wondrous clock is seen, by skilful hands placed there;
Admired by all, by young and old, by sage and learned men,
And guarded as a treasure is the Clock of Crossmaglen.

"Wherever these kind donors dwell, whatever be their name,
They're worthy of unbounded praise and of immortal fame.
For this great gift, this glorious deed, has proved them generous men,
Whose names should be emblazoned on the Clock of Crossmaglen". 3

On 31st May 1903, Sir Thomas Jackson replaced the fake clock with a fine clock,4
reputedly of solid gold and silver, which served its purpose well until in July, 1974, the Markethouse and the Clock came to a sad end, another victim of "The Troubles".

As might be expected, the new clock caused a great stir in the parish and prompted the local poet, Peadar McGeeney, to pen his now famous poem, "The Clock of Crossmaglen", the first verse of which is quoted above:

"We talk of great physicians and Dr. William's Pills,
And Mother Regal Syrup as a remedy for ills;
But long live Sir Thomas Jackson - great laurels for to win,
He gave speech unto a dummy clock in the town of Crossmaglen.

"This dummy clock of Crossmaglen above the market hall,
Was placed there by a landlord - I think his name was Ball;
The poet and the orator, the learned and the wise,
And everyone that came this way this clock did criticise.

"The poet in his able work of verses most sublime,
He said it was by magic wrought to stop the course of time;
The orator in eloquence and words I cannot name
Described it as an emblem great of Irish landlord fame.

"But this great clock could not be moved with all their jibes and jeers;
It here did stop at 12 o'clock for over forty years.
Sir Thomas came to Crossmaglen, it being his native town;
He ordered that this public fraud at once be taken down.

"He grieved to see his native town so darkly wrapped in gloom.
With a dummy clock above our hall as silent as a tomb.
He placed a clock in Crossmaglen of neither oak nor dale,
But of solid gold and silver. works in case to never fail.

"From Carrick', County Monaghan, to Newry, County Down -
A range of hills and mountains and plains of fertile land-
And over Monaghan's lofty hills and Slieve Gullion's towering peaks
The bell and hammer of this clock each hour loudly speaks.

"And the men from Castleblayney, the traveller in his walk
Can tell the hour on every mile from `Blayney to Dundalk.
Lest you may be mistaken of the distance of those lines,
From Carrick' in to Newry is four and twenty miles.

Above our hall 'tis placed secure by workmen tried and true,
And there `twill stand for evermore exposed to public view;
And future ages will combine to praise and bless the men,
Who planned this clock and placed it in the town of Crossmaglen.

I will not dare attempt the task, or try to tell in rhyme,
The beauties and the charms that deck and grace this work sublime;
But may some gifted poet rise to trace with golden pen,
And celebrate in worthy verse the Clock of Crossmaglen.

Your clumsy clocks must follow time, both minute-hand and hour,
But this great work has stopped time's course, and proved its magic power;
Now, sneer not cynic - 'tis the truth - time has not moved since when
This clock was placed amongst us in the town of Crossmaglen.

It has no wheels, it needs no weights, there is no tick or stroke,
'Tis not of gold or silver wrought, but good old Irish oak;
Yet stranger far than Strasbourg chimes, its hands at twelve past ten,
Full often fill with laughter wild the Square of Crossmaglen.

Now 'twas our landlords gave this clock, the truth I vouch to you;
Then listen not to Parnell's cries nor to his noisy crew.
But, down with rent reductions! we'll prove true and loyal men,
And stand by our dear landlords in the town of Crossmaglen.

And Cross' is in the centre of those last four mentioned towns,
Which proves this clock is clearly heard twelve Irish miles around.
So now you bards and scholars great who criticise the dumb,
I'll ask you all to raise your voice in praises of Sir Tom.

My voice it is too feeble, and my intellect not clear
For to attempt the praises of the great Sir Thomas here;
And it will be recorded in the ages yet to come
How the great Sir Thomas Jackson gave speech unto the dumb.

And now the editor of these simple lines I mean to tell you here -
He lives beside the crooked bridge along the river clear;
He is not a man of learning, nor a poet of great fame;
He is but a simple plough-man, McGeeney is his name.

And he hopes another poet who can yield a patten quill
Will shortly take a ramble around for Urcher Hill.
To view the family residence and birth-place for Sir Tom,
And other stately mansions in this valley all along.

For on the celebrated hills a poet cannot fail
To describe the (-?) scenery around sweet Creggan Vale.
As this brings to my memory with mingled grief and pride,
A place they call White Stables where Art MacCooey died". 5

Crossmaglen Market House c.1900 showing Jackson Clock and Bell

An entry in the "Minute Book" of the Crossmaglen Rural District Council, dated 1st July 1903, records the following letter sent to Sir Thomas Jackson:

" ..... The Council of above District hereby place on record their appreciation of the kindness of Sir. Thos. Jackson, Bart., in erecting the beautiful and ornamental clock in the Courthouse, Crossmaglen, which will serve a very useful purpose and at the same time serve as a reminder of a great man who first saw the light in our District.6 The Council are mindful that in thus honouring their town, Sir. Thos. Jackson gives proof, if any be needed, of his love for his old home and adds to the debt which the people of the District owe himself & the distinguished family to which he belongs. The council fervently wish Sir. Thos. a long life to pursue his successful career and hope that he may often visit Crossmaglen where himself & the family to which he belongs are with good reason universally respected.

Signed: P. McConville. Proposed: Chairman. Seconded: Hale".

Sir Thomas Jackson was born on 4th June 1841, in Carrigallen, Co. Leitrim, where his parents were resident at the time.7 He was the second of six sons of David and Elizabeth Jackson.

It appears that the Jacksons first came to the Parish of Creggan about 1745. Major Wright, of Gilford Castle, a great-great-grand-nephew of Sir Thomas, believes that George Jackson came to Creggan as a schoolmaster to teach at the new Charter School which had just opened on 13th September, 1737.

An entry from "Burke's Peerage",8 under "Jackson of Stansted", states: "..... The ancestor of this family in Ireland came from Co. York in Cromwell's Army and was granted lands in Co. Carlow for his services. This estate, called Mount Leinster, was sold in 1745 by his descendant, George Jackson, who settled at Urker, Crossmaglen, Co. Armagh.....".

Photo of Sir George Jackson

I am fairly certain that George Jackson first settled in Liscalgat because the 1766 "Census of Creggan" lists him as a resident there.9 His name does not appear on the Urker list for that year.

I do not know the exact date the Jacksons acquired a holding in Urker. The first firm evidence I have of their being there is in the 1828 "Tithe Composition Book, Creggan Parish" 10 which shows Mrs. Elizabeth Jackson as holding 30 acres in Urker and 50 acres in Liscalgat.

Elizabeth's husband, John Jackson, died in 1817, leaving two children, David and Margaret. Elizabeth lived another 63 years and died in 1880, aged 92 years". 11She was obviously a matriarchal figure, having lived in Urker for the major part of the 19th. century, guiding and influencing the family fortunes for most of that time.

Her two children married in 1838, David to Elizabeth Oliver, of Killynure, Armagh, and Margaret to Rev. Daniel Gunn Brown, Minister to the First Newtownhamilton Presbyterian Church". 12 From the time of his marriage, the Rev. Brown was inextricably linked with the Jacksons and the story of his life must form part of the Jackson story as well.

Thomas Ball's "Valuation Records", 1840, show Mrs. Elizabeth Jackson as holding 59 acres in Urker, a fairly substantial farm in those days. However, life was not always easy for the widow, for in December, 1846, she was evicted from her lands in Urker. This fact came to light during research on agrarian disturbances around Crossmaglen, with reference to the murder of George McClean, a farmer and road-contractor, of Cregganduff, who was found dead on the Dundalk Road, Crossmaglen, on 4th December 1846. Matthew Singleton, R.M., Newtownhamilton, sent a report on 9th December 1846 to the Under-Secretary at Dublin Castle, indicating that he thought the murder might have been committed by the Ribbonmen and that one cause assigned for the murder was that Mrs. Elizabeth Jackson was dispossessed of a large farm on the expiration of a long lease and that part of the farm was given to one Middleton, bailiff to the property, and a nephew of the deceased. Matthew Singleton wrote: "..... Several persons refused to plough the lands last week. Deceased sent his horses to do a few days before he was murdered..... " 13.

It would appear that by 1850 Elizabeth Jackson had handed over the running of the farm to her son, David. The "Baptismal Register" of the First Newtownhamilton Presbyterian Church shows that all David's children were baptised by the aforementioned Rev. Daniel Gunn Brown. The entries for the two eldest boys, John and Thomas, show their address as Carrigallen, Co. Leitrim. The entry for the third son, James, born 24th October, 1850, shows the address as Urker Lodge, Creggan, indicating that the family had moved back to Urker, and in "Griffith's Valuation" 14, 1864, David is listed as a holder of lands in both Urker and Liscalgat. The two older boys of the family were quite young when they came to Urker- the remaining children were all brought up in Urker - and one would like to think that some of the more admirable characteristics of Elizabeth's grandson, Thomas, were inherited from his grandmother.

The family obviously established a close link early on with David's sister, Margaret, and her husband, Rev. Daniel Gunn Brown. I was at somewhat of a loss when I failed to find records of the baptisms of David's children in the Church of Ireland "Parish Register" of Creggan. I was both surprised and delighted to find in the "Baptismal Register" of the First Newtownhamilton Presbyterian Church, that all the children were baptised by Rev. Brown.

Rev. Daniel Gunn Brown was a charismatic figure, a man of great compassion for his less well-off brethern at a time when famine and the abuses of the landlord system were destroying his people. His biographer, Rev. John MacMillan, said of him: "..... He lived fifty years in advance of his time ....." 15. It was also said of him that he was a helper of every man in need, irrespective of religion, freely giving bread from his table and the last shilling in his pocket. He was very much involved in the Tenant League which sought to obtain the legalising of the "Ulster Custom": that a man should not be evicted by his landlord except for non-payment of rent; that he should be compensated for improvements; and that he should be able to sell his tenancy. He gave evidence before "The Select Committee on Outrages", in 1852, insisting that oppressive landlords were partly to blame for the sad state of tenants at that time. At the hearing, he was asked by the Solicitor-General for Ireland: "..... Do you think a man has a right to do what he likes with his own.....?" This was in connection with Rev. Brown's deposition regarding security of tenure on fair principles for landlord and tenant. Rev. Brown replied: "..... I think no man has a right to do what is wrong.....". He lived to see the "Ulster Custom" made law by Gladstone's "Land Act" in 1880 and fair rents secured by the "Second Land Act" of 1881.16

His family consisted of at least eight sons and three daughters. One of his daughters, Elizabeth Sarah, born 6th February 1847, married James (Jemmie) Jackson on 13th October, 1866, thus forging a further link between the two families.

Rev. Daniel Gunn Brown remained as Minister to the First Newtownhamilton Presbyterian church until 1868 18. He retired to Sandymount House, Blackrock, Dundalk, where he lived for ten or twelve years and where he died in May, 1892, at the ripe old age of 85 years". 19 An Obituary notice in the "Newry Reporter" of 31st May, 1892 reads: "..... On Friday his remains were interred in the family burial place, in the ancient cemetery of Creggan. At the grave an eloquent address was delivered by the Rev. Mr. MacMillan, in which he referred to the many enobling virtues which characterised the life of the deceased' 2

The "Guide to Creggan Church & Graveyard", published in 1988, lists a headstone (Plan II, Number 57) with the inscription: "Erected by Thomas Jackson in loving remembrance of Wm. R. Browne 21 died 12th April 1862. `The Lord gave and the Lord hath taken away. Blessed be the name of the Lord'. Job. Ch. 1 Verse 21. Daniel Browne died Feb 1867. John J. Browne died Jan 1876.....". At the time the "Guide....." was published, the exact family connections between Sir Thomas and the three Brownes named on the headstone were not known. I can say now with certainty that the three boys were sons of Rev. Daniel Gunn Brown. From the First Newtownhamilton Presbyterian "Baptismal Register" I traced the names and dates of birth of the three boys: William R., born 9th January 1841 (died aged 21 years); John Jackson, born 19th. July 1843 (died aged 33 years); and Daniel Francis, born 28th. July 1849 (died aged 18 years). One cannot help wondering why these three boys died so young. This burial plot is almost certainly the family burial place of Rev. Daniel Gunn Brown, referred to in the "Newry Reporter" Obituary notice - another illustrious name to add to the long list of illustrious figures buried in Creggan Graveyard.

It appears that Rev. Daniel Gunn Brown's daughter, Sarah, lived for some years in Urker Lodge after her marriage to Jemmie Jackson. Local knowledge suggests that Sir Thomas bought Legmoylin House and lands for the couple. It was Sarah who ran the farm and, like her father, she was well-known for her concern and care of the poor. She was much loved by all who knew her. My father, 22 as a young boy, worked on the farm. He talked of her with great affection, always referring to her as a lady. He often told us of her exemplary character. He said she was incapable of telling a lie and that she strictly observed the Sabbath Day, attending church and reading from her Bible which lay open on the dining-room table. Indeed, until recently, I had thought she was a widow, as my father never talked of Jemmie, her husband. It was unfortunate that he was of little support to his wife and the farm was sold in 1911. The couple moved to Mullaghbane and lived in a house belonging to the O'Hanlon family for the remaining years of their lives.

And now to the main character in the story, Sir Thomas Jackson, Thomas was the second son of David and Elizabeth Jackson. He was educated at Morgan's School, Castleknock, and by private tuition 23. There is a local story told that an English cattledealer bought cattle from David Jackson in Cross' fair. David had his young son, Andy, with him and, afterwards, over a drink in Hale's pub (now O'Donnell's), the dealer offered to take Andy back to London and get him a job in a bank. David let Thomas go instead and this is how he got started in his banking career. 24 A nice romantic story, but not quite true! From records, it seems he commenced his banking career in the Belfast Branch of the Bank of Ireland, in 1860 25.

Documents held in the archives of the main branch of the Hongkong and Shanghai Bank show that he came to Hongkong in 1864 to join the Agra and Masterbank. He left that institution two years later to take service with the Hongkong and Shanghai Bank. His abilities soon won him promotion, for in 1867 he moved to the branch in Shanghai as the Bank's accountant. In 1868, he opened a new branch in Hankow. He was then appointed acting-manager at Yokohama. At this time, the Colony was beset by a great commercial depression. Several leading mercantile firms closed during the years 1868-69. The Hongkong and Shanghai bank also felt the draught from the depression, for the Reserve Fund dropped from 21/2 million dollars to 100,000 dollars and payment of dividends was suspended for the financial year 1874/75. It was at this a critical juncture that Sir Thomas was appointed Chief Manager. By dint of boundless energy and good management, he restored the Bank to a position which made it the premier institution of its kind in the Far East. He continued to act as Chief Manager until 1902, when he retired. The Bank Reserves at that time was 14 1/2 million dollars, a splendid monument to his sole management.

Hong Kong and Shanghai Bank: Hong Kong

Sir Thomas was the first elected Representative of the Chamber of Commerce in the Legislative Council and he was a Justice of the Peace in the colony. He was well-known in Hongkong as a generous benefactor to a wide range of charitable and religious institutions, without discrimination. It was said of him that he loved to do good by stealth and that no one in real need ever sought his assistance in vain. As a lasting memorial to Sir Thomas, his statue was erected in Statue Square opposite the main branch of the Hongkong and Shanghai Bank. Statues of Queen Victoria and other members of the Royal Family have since been moved elsewhere. His, alone, remains to this day, the only Chief Manager of the Bank to have this honour 26.

Statue of Sir George Jackson and Inscription

Sir Thomas married Amelia Lydia Dare on 19th July 1871 and had issue four sons - Thomas, who succeeded his father as 2nd Baronet; George, 3rd Baronet; Walter, 4th Baronet; and Claude - and five daughters: Kathleen McCullagh; Amy Oliver; Beatrice Minnie; Dorothy27; and Edith Bradford, who died as a baby on 7th September 1874 and was buried in the Jackson Family Plot in Creggan Graveyard.

During his long sojourn in Hongkong and afterwards during his retirement at Stansted House, in Essex, Sir Thomas was a frequent visitor to Urker Lodge. His generosity to the poor and needy was legendary and there are many testimonies to his charity. It is said that he never gave less than a sovereign to a poor person and each year, before he returned from holiday, he left a jug of sovereigns with his sister, Mrs. Gilmore, to distribute to the needy of Creggan Parish 28.

Urker House: Jackson Residence

In one of Michael J. Murphy's manuscripts29 in the Department of Irish Folklore, University College, Dublin, there is an interesting transcript of a recording he made of Mary Daly, Faughart, speaking about Sir Thomas Jackson. Mary Daly was almost certainly a native of the Crossmaglen area and her story confirms the local tradition about his generosity: "..... There be to be a chapel in Mobane one time. I did hear there was one in Shelagh - on Shelagh Rock..... But there was one in Mobane an' I'll tell you how I know. The Jacksons that time was big people out there an' there was this oul woman was nursin' Jackson - it was him was the one was very charitable. He went out to China. It was in he's house I seen the first Chinese woman ever I seen. She was in Cross' with him an' she'd be only that height (maybe four feet) an' the lovliest wee feet on her an' two pigtails down her back - an' very sallow. But this oul woman that used to nurse Jackson before he went to China, or was fit to go - she went dark (blind) an' he used to lift the beads for her an' I mind them sayin' that every Sunday he would bring her down the Monug Road - that's a back way to Jackson's - to Mobane. He'd take her down this road, they sayed, till she be to hear the bell ringin' in Mobane Chapel30 an' she'd say her beads there. Jackson was out in Shanghai - isn't that in China - this time an' he was great for charity. But wherever this boat was goin' he stayed back to give out this charity to these poor Chinese at the corner an' they were callin' to him from the boat to come on, but it seems he took no heed of them. Now, he was a great man for charity. But the boat was lost anyhow with all hands. Jackson said it was this oul woman's prayers that saved him. Now, when he come to Cross'- and I mind it meself - they were all goin' to him for charity an' it's up the avenue they be to go an' collect there. They made him a baronet after. An' this Mission come to Cross' an' that was the time they preached agin them goin' to Protestant houses. An' mind you Jackson had it first thing next mornin' an' he told them to go to their own sort for charity. That's what stopped Jackson's charity in Cross'.....".

I spoke to my cousin, Mary Ann31, whose father, John, and mother, Mary Ann, both worked in Jackson's during Sir Thomas' lifetime. Mary Ann remembers quite a few stories about Sir Thomas. She recalled the story of the Chinese lady mentioned by Mary Daly. She was in fact the children's nurse - her name was Ming - and the Jacksons brought her to Urker each year when they came on holiday. Mary Ann's mother often spoke of Ming and once, on a visit, the nurse gave her a present of a beautiful brooch. Sir Thomas liked to visit the families of his workers. In 1912, he called with Mary Ann's mother (she then lived up the Claranagh Road) and he said: "Marian, this house is getting too small for your family. We will build you a house at the cross-roads and we will call it `John's Rock' ". The rent was agreed at 1 penny per week. He there and then went to see Keenans, builders, gave them the contract and the house was ready in a year. That year, 1912, was his last visit to Urker. He died suddenly on 21st December 1915, in an office of the Hongkong and Shanghai Bank, at 9 Gracechurch Street, London32.

Mary Ann remembers her father and the other workers in Urker going up to Cavananor to help with the spring and summer work. Sir Thomas had a fairly large farm - about 200 acres - in Cavananor. There was a land-steward who lived in the house and some workers on the farm but, at busy times, the workers from Urker helped out. From local knowledge, it appears that the Land Commission took over the land and divided it among four families.

During the later years of Sir Thomas' life, his sister, Mrs. Griffin, lived in Urker Lodge as a caretaker. Her brother was very generous to her and she lived quite comfortably. He employed a companion, Miss O'Hare, to live with her. The companion lived with Mrs. Griffin until her death and afterwards she went to live with Mrs. Griffin's daughter. Mrs. Wright, in Gilford Castle and remained there for the rest of her life. Mrs. Griffin was first married to a man called Menary and it was the daughter of this first marriage who married Jemmie Wright, the great-grandfather of Major Wright of Gilford Castle. Jemmie Wright bought Urker Lodge in 193533.

Sir Thomas Jackson was knighted on 8th July, 1899 and created a Baronet on 4th August, 1902, the year he retired from the Hongkong and Shanghai Bank. He bought Stansted House and 100 acres of land in Essex and took the title "Jackson of Stansted". He lived at Stansted from 1902 until his death in December, 1915.

A stained-glass window was installed over the altar in Creggan Parish Church as a memorial to Sir Thomas and the inscription on the window reads: "This window was placed here by many friends in loving memory of Sir Thomas Jackson Bart., born at Urker", 4th June, 1841, died at London 21st, Dec. 1915, whose kindly disposition and great and consistent christian life endeared him to all".

Memorial Window to Sir Thomas Jackson: Creggan Church

The window is a record for posterity and a lasting memorial to one of Creggan's most notable sons.


Extract, letter, Peter J. O'Hagan, 17 Boynton St., West Bowling, Bradford, West Yorks, to Rev. Donal Sweeney, C.C., Upper Creggan, and Editor, "Crossmaglen Review":

..... I have taken the liberty of enclosing a photostat copy of a letter I received .... from my great-uncle, James Duffy, who lives in New Jersey State, U.S.A. .....".

Extract, letter, James Duffy, 431 Tappan Rd., Northvale, New Jersey, U.S.A., to Peter J. O'Hagan:

..... Dear Grand-nephew,
Received your letter some time ago and glad to hear from you; also the snapshot from the old home - it was so good to see it after so many years. I was born in Tavanamore, September 11th., 1883. I went to school in Shelagh, Till mother died, my father, James Duffy, worked for Jackson in Tavanamore. They also had a home and property in Urker, Crossmaglen, Co. Armagh. One of her sons was a banker in China. He used to send the help a present at Christmas. There, lived his mother, daughter and her daughter. They took my father and family to live in the yard in a house they called the pigeon-house.....".

(Courtesy, Editor, "Crossmaglen Review", Vol. 1, No. 3, July 1979)


Edited by Seamus Mallon and Con. Short, 1973

1. "The Dalin' Men From Crossmaglen",
2. Edward Richardson Papers
3. "Seanchas Ard Mhacha", 1972.
4. Edward Richardson Papers.
5. "The Dalin' Men from Crossmaglen".
6. Incorrect, according to "Baptismal Register", First Newtownhamilton Presbyterian Church.
7. "Baptismal Register", First Newtownhamilton Presbyterian Church. 8. Public Record Office, Dublin
9. "The History of the Parish of Creggan in the 17th and 18th Centuries", Rev. L.P. Murray.
10. Public Record Office, Dublin.
11. "A Guide to Creggan Church and Graveyard", Kevin McMahon & Jem Murphy, 1988.
12. "Burke's Peerage"/First Newtownhamilton Presbyterian Church records. 13. "Seanchas Ard Mhacha", 1985
14. Public Record Office, Dublin
15. Rev. John MacMillan's biography of Rev. Daniel Gunn Brown is published in this issue of "Creggan".
16. "A History of Clarkesbridge and First Newtownhamilton Presbyterian Churches", Rev. Brian A. Bell, 1969.
17. "Burke's Peerage".
18. "A History of Clarkesbridge and First Newtownhamilton Presbyterian Churches".
19. "Newry Reporter", 31.5.1892, Newry Reference Library. 20. Do.
21. The spelling Browne on the headstone may have been a mis-spelling by the firm who erected it.
22. Thomas Hearty, Drumbally,
23. "Newry Reporter", 23.12.1915
24. Edward Richardson Papers
25. "Newry Reporter", 23.12.1915.
26. Information courtesy Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation, Hongkong.
27. "Burke's Peerage"/"A Guide to Creggan Church and Graveyard". 28. Edward Richardson Papers
29. Ms. 976.
30. May be a mistake for Crossmaglen Chapel.
31. Griffin nee Hearty, Liscalgat.
32. "Newry Reporter", 23.12.1915.
33. Mary Ann Griffin (nee Hearty)
34. Various sources.
35. Incorrect, according to "Baptismal Register", First Newtownhamilton Presbyterian Church.
Saffron Walden Library, Saffron Walden, Essex (Thomas Jackson photo) Sean Cumiskey, North Street, Crossmaglen (Hongkong photos) Miss B. Hearty, Dorsey (Crossmaglen Markethouse photo).